GARIS PANDUAN PELAKSANAAN IBADAH DI INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, ISS (STESYEN ANGKASA ANTARABANGSA)

DAFTAR ISTILAH

a. Ibadah – Ibadah yang dimaksudkan dalam garis panduan ini meliputi cara beristinja’, menentukan waktu solat, menentukan qiblat, menunaikan solat, menentukan waktu puasa, menguruskan jenazah dan sebagainya.

b. Angkasa – Udara, langit, angkasa lepas bermaksud ruang di luar lapisan udara yang mengelilingi bumi.

c. Al-Maqasid Al-Syariah – Keutamaan syarak dalam menjaga kesucian agama, akal, nyawa, harta dan keturunan.

d. Tayammum – Perbuatan menyapu debu tanah yang suci pada muka dan dua tangan sebagai ganti wudu’ kerana ketiadaan air atau halangan dalam penggunaan air.

e. Halal – Hukum yang membenarkan sesuatu perbuatan dilakukan (dalam Islam), diizinkan, dibenarkan.

f. Aurat – Bahagian tubuh yang wajib ditutup atau tidak boleh kelihatan (menurut hukum Islam).

1. TUJUAN

Garis Panduan Pelaksanaan Ibadah Di International Space Station, ISS (Stesyen Angkasa Antarabangsa) ini disediakan oleh Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia untuk dijadikan rujukan kepada angkasawan Islam berkenaan pelaksanaan ibadah di ISS. Dengan adanya garis panduan ini, diharapkan angkasawan Islam dapat memberikan sepenuh tumpuan terhadap penyelidikan di angkasa di samping menunaikan tanggungjawabnya sebagai seorang Islam dengan lancar. Selain itu, ia juga memberikan panduan kepentingan penjagaan al-maqasid alsyariah dalam apa jua keadaan.

2. PENGENALAN

2.1 Isu pelaksanaan ibadah di angkasa berbangkit dengan pengumuman kerajaan pada Jun 2003 untuk menghantar angkasawan ke Stesen Angkasa Antarabangsa (ISS).

2.2 Pelbagai pandangan dan cadangan telah dikemukakan oleh ahli akademik berkenaan isu ini memandangkan berkemungkinan angkasawan yang akan dihantar ke ISS adalah seorang Islam.

2.3 Cara beristinja’, menentukan waktu solat, menentukan qiblat, menunaikan solat, menentukan waktu puasa, menguruskan jenazah dan sebagainya telah membangkitkan pelbagai persoalan di kalangan masyarakat.

2.4 Sehubungan itu, satu Seminar Islam Dan Kehidupan Di Angkasawan telah dianjurkan oleh Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) dengan kerjasama Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia
(JAKIM) pada 25-26 April 2006 bagi tujuan mengenalpasti isu pelaksanaan ibadah di angkasa dan ISS menurut perspektif Islam dan seterusnya mencari penyelesaian bagi isu-isu tersebut.

3. PELAKSANAAN IBADAH DI ISS

Pelaksanaan ibadah di ISS merangkumi perkara berikut:

3.1 Cara Beristinja’

Beristinja’ adalah dengan menggunakan tisu yang digunapakai di ISS.

Syarat-syarat beristinja’ seperti berikut:

i. Bahan yang digunakan untuk beristinja’ sesuatu yang suci, bukan najis dan bukan bahan yang dihormati.
ii. Bahan yang kering.
iii. Bahan yang kesat.
iv. Bahan yang digunakan tidak kurang daripada tiga seperti tiga biji batu.
v. Najis yang keluar belum kering.
vi. Najis yang keluar tidak melewati kawasan laluannya.

3.2 Mengangkat Hadas

i. Mengangkat Hadas Kecil
Mengangkat hadas kecil adalah dengan bertayammum secara menepuk ISS seperti dinding, cermin dan sebagainya (walaupun tiada debu).

ii. Mengangkat Hadas Besar
Mengangkat hadas besar adalah dengan cara yang sama di Para 3.2(i).

3.3 Penentuan Qiblat

Penentuan qiblat adalah mengikut kemampuan berdasarkan urutan berikut:

i. Kaabah
ii. Unjuran Kaabah
iii. Bumi
iv. Mana-mana arah.

3.4 Penentuan Waktu Solat

Lima waktu solat dalam tempoh 24 jam (1 hari di bumi) menggunapakai waktu solat tempat berlepas1 angkasawan.

3.5 Cara Menunaikan Solat

i. Solat boleh ditunaikan secara jama’ dan qasar dan tidak perlu diqada’.
ii. Pelaksanaan rukun fi’li (perbuatan) solat adalah dengan mengikat diri angkasawan mengikut kesesuaian keadaan di ISS berdasarkan urutan berikut:

a. Jika tidak berupaya berdiri tegak, hendaklah berdiri secara membongkok.
b. Jika tidak berupaya berdiri, hendaklah secara duduk. Seseorang boleh melakukan ruku’ dengan dahinya setentang lutut atau yang lebih utama setentang dengan tempat sujud.
c. Jika tidak berupaya duduk, hendaklah secara berbaring mengiring di atas lambung kanan dan
bahagian tubuh menghadap qiblat.
d. Jika tidak berupaya baring, hendaklah secara menelentang.
e. Jika tidak berupaya menelentang, hendaklah secara isyarat mata bagi setiap pergerakan solat.
f. Jika tidak berupaya juga, hendaklah dengan hati iaitu menggambarkan dirinya berdiri, ruku’, sujud dan seterusnya.

iii. Pelaksanaan rukun qawli (perkataan) solat adalah sama seperti di bumi.

3.6 Cara Menunaikan Puasa
i. Puasa boleh ditunaikan samada di ISS atau di bumi secara qada’ sekiranya melibatkan bulan Ramadhan.
ii. Penentuan waktu puasa adalah menggunapakai waktu puasa tempat berlepas angkasawan.
1 Dengan penyesuaian untuk kawasan melebihi latitud 45º Utara mengikut buku Kaedah Panduan Falak Syarie terbitan JAKIM.

3.7 Pengurusan Jenazah
i. Jenazah perlu dibawa balik ke bumi untuk pengurusan seperti biasa.
ii. Sekiranya jenazah tidak boleh dibawa balik, maka diharuskan menyemadikannya di angkasa dengan pengurusan jenazah secara yang ringkas.

4. HAL-HAL BERKAITAN

4.1 Pemakanan
Sekiranya makanan yang disediakan diragui halal, maka diharuskan memakannya sekadar mengalas lapar.

4.2 Etika Berpakaian
i. Angkasawan Islam perlu menjaga batasan auratnya iaitu:
a. Aurat lelaki adalah di antara pusat dan lutut.
b. Aurat perempuan adalah selain muka dan dua tapak tangan.

4.3 Etika Bermusafir

i. Perjalanan ke angkasa merupakan satu musafir yang
diharuskan mengikut Islam.
ii. Angkasawan perlu menghormati etika bermusafir iaitu:

a. Menjaga kelangsungan hubungan dengan Tuhan.
b. Menjaga keharmonian hubungan sesama makhluk.
c. Menjaga kelestarian alam sekitar.

PENUTUP
Adalah diharapkan Garis Panduan ini dapat dipatuhi oleh angkasawan Islam demi memastikan misi penyelidikan di angkasa berjaya di samping mendapat keredhaan Tuhan jua.

Source: Islam.gov

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